“China is not in a hurry, it does things almost in stages, almost invisibly.” 

There are thousands of Chinese working on other projects across the continent. Image copyrightGETTY IMAGESImage captionIn Sudan, China participates in large long-term projects with Chinese laborA survey by Johns Hopkings University in the United States calculated that there were more than 200,000 Chinese workers in Africa in 2016, mostly in Algeria, Angola, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Kenya.

There are NGOs that question the conditions to which these Chinese workers are subjected. Despite the controversy, between 2005 and 2015, Chinese invested US $ 66 billion in Sub-Saharan Africa, creating 130,000 jobs, according to the audit firm Ernst & Young. About five years ago, China transferred part of its production of cheap labor items to Africa, as its own workforce has risen.

 It has also become a major credit provider,

which goes beyond financial purposes. Researchers at the international AidData center have found a direct relationship between the size of financial assistance offered by China to different African countries and the way they vote at the UN in relation to resolutions that could affect Beijing, such as Taiwan’s failure to recognize.

For Mikhail Smotryaev, the Chinese onslaught is associated with private initiative. However, he says, you cannot have so much presence without these initiatives having previously been part of the structure of the Chinese Communist Party. “It is a plan that is coordinated by the government, and the Chinese state is behind (the expansion of companies),” says Smotryaev.

  • Image copyrightGETTY IMAGESImage captionInvestments in Chinese private initiative in Africa are supported by the government of ChinaRussia’s goals are more modest and
  • immediate. The Russians have signaled that they want to advance on existing trade and create some new markets. Africa is once again becoming a market for Russian grains.

And African greens and vegetables are in demand in Russia, especially after Western sanctions. However, unlike China, Russia is plagued by bureaucratic difficulties that prevent African products from accessing their markets. Although it is incorporating its strategy in the historical context – on the premise that it is easier to sustain what has already been done – Russia has made little effort to take advantage of its connections with African elites, many of whom were educated in the former Union Soviet, according to Smotryaev.

Beijing has not yet achieved the infrastructure

Image copyrightGETTY IMAGESImage captionRussia consumes vegetables from AfricaThe challenge seems to be to transform a relationship that was once political into commercial. For now, Russia’s trade and investment are not robust enough to immediately clash with China. On the other hand, development it aspires to in any African country, and that will not happen so quickly.

  •  “On many issues on their international agenda, the positions of Russia and China are close, parallel or coincident,” Andrei Karneev, director of the Institute for Asian and African Studies at
  • Lomonosov University in Moscow, told the BBC. Thus, both, in general terms, “are ready for the possibility of their commercial interests colliding and will not allow this to affect the long-
  • term relations between the powers”.The population of Africa will overtake the population of China and India in 2023,

article by José Eustáquio Diniz AlvesArticle by Newsroom – 8/02/201490    [EcoDebate] China and India are considered continental countries, as they each had a larger population than the entire African continent. But as the graph below shows, with data from the UN Population Division, the population of Africa will exceed the population of China and India in 2023 and is expected to continue growing rapidly throughout the 21st century, as China begins to decline from 2029 and India starts to decrease from 2061.

population of Africa, China and India   As the table below shows, only China, with a population of 554.4 million in 1950, had twice the number of inhabitants in Africa (222.7 million). India had a population of 376.3 million people in 1950. China’s population in 1950 represents 21.9% of the world’s 2.5 billion inhabitants. India’s population represented 14.8% and Africa’s 9%. China and India together (Chíndia) represented 36.7% of the world population and had a population 4 times greater than the entire African continent.

 But in 2023, Africa with 1.45 billion inhabitants

is expected to overtake both China (with 1.43 billion) and India (with 1.42 billion). In percentage terms, Africa’s population is expected to represent 18.1% of the world’s 8 billion inhabitants this year. Between 1950 and 2023 Africa is expected to show an absolute growth of 6.4 times, doubling in relative terms from 9% to 18.1% of the global population. But Africa, by 2023, will still be about half the size of China

  • (2.86 billion people, representing almost 36% of the global population).In 2061, Africa with 3 billion inhabitants will be much larger than, together, China (1.28 billion inhabitants) and
  • India (1.68 billion inhabitants). For the first time, therefore, it will be larger than China (2.96 billion inhabitants). The African continent will
  • represent 29.3% of the Earth’s 10.3 billion inhabitants, China 12.5%, India 16.4% and China 28.8% of the global population.

In the year 2100, Africa with 4.47 billion inhabitants will be more than 4 times the size of China (1 billion), about 3 times the size of India (1.5 billion) and almost twice the size of Chíndia (2.5 billion inhabitants). In relative terms, Africa will represent 40% of the world’s population of 11.2 billion, more than 4 times the percentage of China (9.1%), 3 times greater than the percentage of India (13 , 6%) and almost double that of Chíndia (22.7%).

According to the average projections of the UN Population Division, from 1950 to 2100, China will show demographic growth of 1.8 times, India of 4 times, Chíndia of 2.7 times, the world of 4.4 times and Africa almost 20 times.   population of Africa, China and India   Evidently, all this demographic growth, which, to a large extent, is accompanied by economic growth, poses many environmental challenges. According to the Global Footprint Network,

Africa’s Ecological Footprint per capita has always been low and remained practically stable, as it was at 1.26 gha in 1961 and went to 1.39 gha in 2014. However, biocapacity suffered a great drop due population growth. The per capita biocapacity was 4.96 gha in 1961 and fell to 1.29 gha in 2014. The African continent had a large environmental surplus in 1961 and started to have an environmental deficit as of 2010.

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