To expand China’s geopolitical influence

Even an exponential figure like Mahatma Gandhi has been accused of racism by several African countries (Biswas. BBC, 2015). At stake are Africa’s rich natural resources, fast-growing markets and political and military influence over the planet’s Southern Hemisphere. But while the United States and the rest of the West have largely ignored Africa during the past two decades, China has made it an economic and strategic priority. Beijing considers it the perfect place to obtain raw materials, invest in business abroad and, above all, , as part of a major strategy to replace the United States as the main global hegemonic power. In 2018,

Trade between China and Africa

was around $ 500 billion, while American trade is about $ 10 billion and is in decline.) At the moment, China has more than 3,000 infrastructure projects ongoing across the continent and distributed more than $ 60 billion in commercial loans. China invests in hundreds of infrastructure projects and seeks to have control especially of ports, airports and transport and energy routes. China’s growing influence also has its military side. China’s decision in 2017 to build a military and naval base in Djibouti,

in the Horn of Africa, has been a factor in geopolitical change, given its proximity to the U.S. base at Camp Lemonnier. The location of the base of Djibouti gives China’s new aircraft carriers a place to rest and retrofit and to project Chinese power where, ten or 20 years ago, they thought it was possible. Therefore, the high demographic growth in Africa may not mean an increase in the continent’s power, but an increase in the situation of poverty, an increase in the environmental deficit and a greater dependence on investments, mainly from the government and Chinese companies, but also from Russia and India.

José Eustáquio Diniz Alves, Columnist at Portal EcoDebate, is a PhD in demography and a professor of the master’s and doctorate in Population, Territory and Public Statistics at the National School of Statistical Sciences – ENCE / IBGE; It presents its points of view in a personal character. Email: [email protected]   References:ALVES, JED. The challenges of Sub-Saharan Africa in seven figures,

Was Mahatma Gandhi a racist?

BBC, 17 September 2015 can be copied, reproduced and / or distributed, provided that credit is given to the author, EcoDebate and, if applicable, the primary source of information]Inclusion in the distribution list of the Daily Bulletin of the electronic magazine EcoDebate, ISSN 2446-9394, If you want to be included in the distribution list of our daily newsletter, just send an email to newsletter

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Your email will be removed and you will receive a message confirming the removal. Note that the removal is automatic but is not instantaneous.China in South America and the geopolitical implications of the Pacific Consensus   La Chine en Amérique du Sud et les implications geniques du Consensus du Pacifique     Javier Vadell1     RESUME The article analyzes the political implications of the growing economic interdependence between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the countries of South America.

Data on PRC trade and investment in the sub-region are presented and diplomatic advances in bilateral cooperation throughout the 21st century. It starts with the question of whether we would be facing a relationship pattern that could constitute a renewed South-South cooperation relationship or, on the contrary, a new type of North-South relationship. Our hypothesis is that the evolution and dynamics of this relationship are more similar to a North-South system or pattern with very particular characteristics.

We call this Pacific Consensus (CP) relationship pattern.

Although in the short term the China factor stimulates the growth of the sub-region, the CP has different implications for the development of countries that have an important industrial sector – ex. Brazil and Argentina – and those who do not have it – ex. Chile and Peru, which even signed free trade agreements with the Asian giant. The article concludes with some considerations regarding

  • the consequences that the CP has on the South American integration process. Keywords: China; South America; integration; Pacific consensus.
  • ABSTRACT This article analyzes the political implications of the increasing interdependence of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and South American countries. We present data on PRC
  • investment and trade in the region and highlight several points of diplomatic progress in terms of bi-lateral cooperation for the 21st century.

Our starting point is the issue of whether we face a relationship that could constitute a new form of South-South cooperation or whether it is more representative of the typical North-South pattern or system – albeit one with its own peculiarities. We refer to this relationship pattern as Pacific Consensus (PC). Although short term, the China factor may stimulate growth in the region, it also has different implications for the development of countries with an important industrial sector – such as Brazil and Argentina – and those that do not – such as Chile and Peru – which have all signed free trade agreements with the Asiatic giant. We conclude with some considerations regarding the consequences that the PC has in terms of Latin American integration.

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